Saturday, September 20, 2014

Cognitive Dissonance for 7th Graders

Here is the content from a presentation on cognitive dissonance that I delivered in my class of 7th graders

Cognitive Dissonance - What makes me sad?

What makes me sad?
अज्ञान (ignorance)
अभाव (absence)
अन्याय (injustice)
अफसोस (regret)
असमंजस (dilemma)

What is the reason for irresolution or dilemma?

Answer: Cognitive Dissonance.

Meaning of the words

Cognition
the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses.

Dissonance
lack of harmony among musical notes.

In psychology, cognitive dissonance is the mental stress or discomfort experienced by an individual who holds two or more contradictory beliefs, ideas, or values at the same time, or is confronted by new information that conflicts with existing beliefs, ideas, or values.

The conflict:
Roma knows that smoking causes cancer.
She still smokes because she enjoys it.

…what will Roma do?

The conflict:
Neeta loves Raj
But Raj does not love Neeta

…what will Neeta do?

Leon Festinger's theory of cognitive dissonance focuses on how humans strive for internal consistency. When inconsistency (dissonance) is experienced, individuals largely become psychologically distressed. His basic hypotheses are listed below:
  1. "The existence of dissonance, being psychologically uncomfortable, will motivate the person to try to reduce the dissonance and achieve consonance“
  2. "When dissonance is present, in addition to trying to reduce it, the person will actively avoid situations and information which would likely increase the dissonance"

Some Cartoons/Images:

Example 1:
Attitude: “I am going on a diet and will avoid high fat food”
Behaviour: Eating a pizza or some other high fat food

Reducing Cognitive Dissonance:
  1. Change behaviour/cognition
    (Example: Stop eating the pizza)
  2. Justify behaviour/cognition by changing the conflicting cognition
    (Example: "I'm allowed to cheat every once in a while")
  3. Justify behaviour/cognition by adding new cognitions
    (Example: "I'll spend 30 extra minutes at the gym to work it off")
  4. Ignore/Deny any information that conflicts with existing beliefs
    (Example: "I did not eat that pizza. I always eat healthy.")

Example 2:
Attitude: “I got below average marks in maths, I need to study hard and practice more”
Behaviour: Watching TV

Reducing Cognitive Dissonance:
  1. Change behaviour/cognition
    (Example: Stop watching TV and start studying)
  2. Justify behaviour/cognition by changing the conflicting cognition
    (Example: "I'm allowed to cheat every once in a while")
  3. Justify behaviour/cognition by adding new cognitions
    (Example: "I'll spend 30 extra minutes studying and sleep less")
  4. Ignore/Deny any information that conflicts with existing beliefs
    (Example: "Main toh jyaada TV nahin dekhta")

Example 3:
Attitude: “Bhaiya is a new teacher and is struggling to teach us better”
Behaviour: Fighting in the class, making noise, teasing others, not paying attention

Reducing Cognitive Dissonance:
  1. Change behaviour/cognition
    (Example: Stop disrupting the class and stay quite and pay attention)
  2. Justify behaviour/cognition by changing the conflicting cognition
    (Example: "I'm allowed have fun in the class every now and then")
  3. Justify behaviour/cognition by adding new cognitions
    (Example: "I will study on my own at home or during tuitions.")
  4. Ignore/Deny any information that conflicts with existing beliefs
    (Example: "I am not making noise, Bhaiya is a bad teacher")

Don’t Justify or Ignore…. Change behavior – the choice is yours!

Tuesday, September 9, 2014

Value Education for Secondary Grade Students

Collection of content resources for use during value education sessions for secondary grader. I used these in my 7th grade class.

  1. What makes me sad?
    1. अज्ञान (ignorance)
    2. अभाव (absence)
    3. अन्याय (injustice)
    4. अफसोस (regret)
    5. असमंजस (dilemma - maybe due to Cognitive Dissonance - refer presentation here)
  2. What stops me from hurting anyone?
    1. Lack of Reason
    2. Conscience/Empathy
    3. Surveillance
    4. Punishment
  3. Growth, Care, Nurture and Love
    Philosophy outlined in M Scott Peck - The Road Less Traveled 
    1. Growth - when a person gains new skills and knowledge and becomes better as compared to what s/he was yesterday
    2. Care - When someone makes provision of what is necessary for the health, welfare, maintenance, and protection of someone or something.
    3. Nurture - When someone facilitates the growth of another person.
    4. Love - Nurturing someone even when it comes at a cost to the nurturer.
    5. Kissanpur - Real Joy Of Togetherness - TVC
  4. Belief versus Faith
    1. Alan Watts on the Difference Between Belief and Faith
    2. Do Scientists Pray? Einstein Answers a Little Girl’s Question about Science vs. Religion
    3. Faith and Belief Are Not the Same
  5. Frugal Innovation (Jugaad) and Perseverance
    1. Panyee Football Club - Short Film
    2. Tubelight ka Chaand - Short Film by Anurag Kashyap
  6. Giving & Paying It Forward
    1. Naik Foundation - TVC
    2. Narayanan Krishnan - To give without a reason - TEDTalk
    3. Unsung Hero - TVC (Thai Life Insurance) (Explain the meaning of "unsung" - no poems written about this warrior)
    4. Share my Dabba - Initiative
    5. The Joy of Giving - Short Film
    6. This Is How A Single Good Deed Can Change The World
    7. Start a Ripple Today - Care and Share Movement
  7. Parents
    1. The Father - Short Film (Explain "Metaphor" to students)
    2. Silence of Love - TVC (Thai Life Insurance)
    3. A Family is Forever - TVC (Bernas group of companies, Malaysia)
    4. Sharman Joshi Speaks The Truth
  8. Friendship
    1. On the eve of Hari Raya (Eid al-Fitr) - TVC (Bernas group of companies, Malaysia)
  9. Child-abuse (good touch / bad touch)
    1. Komal - A film on Child Sexual Abuse  by Childline India
  10. Eve-teasing
    1. Slap - A Short Film
    2. That Day After Everyday - A Short film on eve-teasing by Anurag Kashyap
    3. Stop Eve Teasing - A Short Film
  11. Drug Abuse
    1. Nuggets - Animated video explaining "Addiction"
  12. Women Empowerment
    1. Girl Rising is a global movement for girls' education, based primarily around a 2013 feature film, Girl Rising.
  13. Patriotism and Unity
    1. 'A for Anthem' - A short film by kids impacted by Akansha Foundation explaining the meaning of the Indian national anthem.
    2. Roobaroo - Micromax Unite Anthem (Explain "Face to face with light" as a metaphor)
  14. Leadership
    1. The Tree - TVC Lead India
  15. Dedication and Karma
    1. The Man Who Planted Trees (PDF is here)
  16. Attitudes and Choices
    1. My Shoes - Short Film
    2. Salt 'N' Pepper - Short Film
    3. This is water - Talk by the late David Foster Wallace
  17. Find your Light
    1. Metaphor - Comparing light to knowledge and ignorance to darkness
    2. Knowledge vs. Skills
    3. This little light of mine
  18. Work Ethics
    1. A Mother, A Daughter and A Pineapple - TVC (AIS Thai)
  19. Classroom Behaviour
    1. Class of Rowdies - Short Film
  20. Inclusion
    1. The Lemon Tree - Initiative
  21. United Nations's Millennium Development Goals
    1. How does the United Nations work?
    2. United Nations Explained
    3. United Nations for kids - Episode 1
    4. United Nations for kids - Episode 2
    5. Millennium Development Goals for 2015
    6. Millennium Development Goals - The Lancet
    7. Let's Step Up #MDGMomentum
    8. News on Millennium Development Goals Website
  22. Politics
    1. The Political Spectrum - Left Wing vs Right Wing
    2. Left Wing vs Right Wing - Information is Beautiful
  23. WHO Life Skills
    1. Skills for Health - PDF
    2. CBSE - Life Skills and CCE - PDF
  24. Sustenance and Environment
    1. The Fence by Daniel Quinn
  25. Music Videos
    1. The Script ft. will.i.am - Hall of Fame
    2. Nimesh 'Nemo' Patel - Being Kind - The Music Video That Circled The World
    3. Lee Ann Womack - I Hope You Dance